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Between ages 4 to 6, cognitive abilities develop rapidly as does awareness of music in a cultural context. It is at this stage that children first realise – music is not only an enjoyable activity in which to participate, but that pride and esteem can be achieved through performing well, and giving enjoyment to others through performance. At this age, more focus is put on technical aspects of music, such as the learning and vocal application of scales and using tuned instruments to play songs. Children develop an ability to judge pitch intervals relatively and can mimic melodies accurately. Furthermore, they start to show a more cognitively complex understanding of the relationship between music and language, being able to convert questions and answers into call and response patterns, while also being able to use emotional expression to alter the timbre of known songs.